The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ that is about the
size of a walnut, found at the base of the bladder. The urethra is a
thin tube that allows the passage of urine out of the penis. It runs
through the prostate gland. Fluid produced by this gland helps to
protect and feed sperm, which come from the seminal vesicles via the
ejaculatory ducts into the urethra.
The prostate undergoes two main growth spurts. The first is fuelled by
sex hormones made by the testicles during puberty. This prompts the
gland to reach an average weight of 20 grams in adulthood. For reasons
that are unclear, the second growth spurt begins when men are in their
30s. The prostate continues to enlarge with age to an average weight of
40 grams in men in their 70s.
Many men experience urinary changes as they age, which may be caused by
inflammation or enlargement of the prostate gland. An enlarged prostate
gland, however, does not always cause urinary problems. Troublesome
urinary symptoms are rarely symptoms of prostate cancer.
Cause of urinary problems as men age
Many men experience urinary symptoms as they age, which may be caused by
inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis). In the older male,
symptoms may be the result of a blockage in the tubes due to a benign
(non-cancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic
hyperplasia - BPH). The most common symptom is difficulty emptying your
Urinary symptoms may become noticeable enough that they require
treatment. Not all urinary symptoms are due to changes to the prostate.
Also, some men have enlarged prostates and yet experience few, if any,
Symptoms of urinary problems
Urinary symptoms commonly experienced with prostate problems include:
- the need to urinate frequently during the night
- urinating more often during the day
- urinary urgency - the urge to urinate can be so strong and sudden that you may not reach the toilet in time
- the urine stream is slow to start
- urine dribbling for some time after finishing urination
- a sensation that the bladder isn’t fully emptied after urination
- lack of force to the urine flow, which makes directing the stream difficult
- the sensation of needing to go again soon after urinating.
Although these symptoms often do not need treatment, you should see your
doctor if they are causing you particular difficulty, as they can be
Urinary symptoms to be followed up
See your doctor if you experience:
- being unable to urinate
- painful urination
- any blood in the urine at all
- any discharge from the penis
- continuous or severe urinary incontinence (you can’t hold your urine).
Inflammation of the prostate gland
Bacteria sometimes cause prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate).
More commonly, the underlying cause is uncertain. You should consult
your doctor promptly if you experience:
- lower back pain
- pain in the groin
- urgent and frequent urination.
Treatment with antibiotics is essential for acute bacterial prostatitis.
Admission to hospital is often necessary and, as with chronic (ongoing)
bacterial prostatitis, specific antibacterial drugs are required for a
Problems with enlarged prostate gland
BPH causes enlargement of the prostate, which may cause troublesome symptoms. BPH is more common as men get older.
The urethra passes through the prostate gland, so men may have problems
urinating if the enlarged gland restricts the flow of urine. If the flow
stops completely, a catheter is required to empty the bladder. It is
rare for this form of acute urinary retention to cause kidney damage.
An enlarged prostate doesn’t always cause urinary problems. Studies
indicate that the size of a man’s prostate gland has little influence on
the type or severity of his urination problems. BPH is just one
possible cause of urinary symptoms.
Another cause of urinary symptoms can be changes to the muscular wall of
the bladder, which may cause spasms of the bladder or weaken the
bladder, causing problems passing urine.
Diagnosis of enlarged prostate gland and urinary problems
If you are troubled by urination problems, you should see a doctor - no
matter what your age. If your doctor agrees that your symptoms need
further evaluation and treatment, you may need to undergo a few tests.
These may include:
- physical examination - including rectal examination to check the size and shape of your prostate gland
- a urine check - to ensure the prostate is not infected
- a flow-rate check - to estimate the speed with which you pass urine
- an ultrasound examination - to assess if the bladder is emptying completely and to examine your kidneys
- urodynamics - a series of tests on the bladder to see how your
urinary system is functioning may be recommended in some circumstances.
Self-help strategies for urinary problems
If your urination problems are simple and don’t bother you very much, steps you can take at home include:
- Minimise drinks such as coffee, caffeinated soft drinks and alcohol,
especially before bedtime, if getting up at night to pass urine is
disturbing your sleep.
- Learn pelvic floor and bladder retraining exercises as they may help to ease some urinary symptoms. See your doctor for advice.
Treatment for urinary problems
If your urinary problems are caused by infection or enlargement of the prostate gland, treatment may include:
- a long course of antibacterial medication (for bacterial
prostatitis) - because infection is difficult to get rid of, the
antibacterial medication will need to be taken for many weeks.
- medication to improve urine flow and other symptoms (for obstruction caused by an enlarged prostate)
- surgical procedures (for blockage caused by an enlarged
prostate) such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP),
transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP), laser resection of the
prostate, and for very large glands, open (enucleative) prostatectomy.
This last procedure involves removing the enlarged prostatic tissue
around the urethra and leaving the remaining prostate behind. It is not a
common treatment for enlargement of the prostate. The type of surgery
required depends on the size of the prostate and the condition of the
- a number of other procedures that have been developed to reduce urinary symptoms. Talk to your doctor about your options.
Medication for urinary problems
Your doctor may suggest various medications to help ease your urinary problems, including:
- medications to reduce the tone of the muscles of the urethra and
prostate to minimise any constriction to urine flow caused when these
- medications to reduce the size of the prostate gland. These
drugs work by blocking the action of male hormones produced by the
- medications to relax the bladder, making unwanted contractions
less likely and reducing the symptoms of urgency and frequency of
- the over-the-counter preparation ‘saw palmetto’ (Serenoa repens)
is sometimes used. This may help some men, especially if frequent
urination at night is a problem. However, recent reviews of the evidence
for using saw palmetto as a treatment for mild or moderate urinary
symptoms did not show any improvement, compared to no treatment, in men